Tuesday, March 10, 2009

Steps of Producing matured Proteins:

  • Replication- Formation of Single strand of DNA from double strands of DNA.
  • Transcription- Formation of primary transcript from single strand of DNA.
Primary transcripts consist of introns (non-coding regions of DNA sequences which contains prediction of promoter regions,regulatory elements and protein binding sites) and exons (coding regions of DNA sequences which are usually small-150 bp long on average and here the sequence of their splice sites are available).
  • Splicing- Formation of mRNA from primary transcript by removing introns.
  • Translation- Native/nascent protein is formed from mRNA through this process.
  • Post translational modification- matured proteins are formed.
Protein maturation/post translation modification include any combination of the following stages:
- cuts within the amino acid chain,
- removal of fragment of the amino acid chain (eg. insulin),
- chemical modification of specific amino acids (eg. methylation),
-addition of lipid molecules (eg. myristoylation),
- addition of glycosidic(sugar) molecules (eg. glycosylation).

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